1.4 Institutional architecture
The institutional architecture for climate change, energy and sustainable development in principal covers a wide range of different entities and processes. At the international level, these include the Millennium Development Goals, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 and its Johannesburg Plan for Implementation (JPOI) and the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), all of which have broad and important connections to climate change in the context of sustainable development, energy and poverty eradication. Other international fora that are important to advancing the agenda for sustainable development and climate change include – but are not limited to – the UN General Assembly, the G8 Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, OECD, the World Trade Organization (WTO; which pursues trade liberalization, important for technology transfers), IEA and the World Bank. More regional fora include regional banks, the EU and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate for transferring and deploying clean technologies and building up human and institutional capacity. Chapter 2.1 discusses these issues in detail, and they are further evaluated in Chapter 12. This chapter focuses specifically on the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and with technology cooperation and transfer.