1.5 Changes from previous assessments and roadmap
1.5.1 Previous assessments
The IPCC was set up in 1988 by UNEP and WMO with three working groups: to assess available scientific information on climate change (WGI), to assess environmental and socio-economic impacts (WGII) and to formulate response strategies (WGIII).
The First Assessment Report (FAR) (IPCC, 1991) dealt with the anthropogenic alteration of the climate system through CO2 emissions, potential impacts and available cost-effective response measures in terms of mitigation, mainly in the form of carbon taxes without much concern for equity issues (IPCC, 2001, Chapter 1).
For the Second Assessment Report (SAR), in 1996, Working Groups II and III were reorganized (IPCC, 1996). WGII dealt with adaptation and mitigation, and WGIII dealt with the socio-economic cross-cutting issues related to costing climate change’s impacts and providing cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for use in decision-making. The socio-institutional context was emphasized as well as the issues of equity, development, and sustainability (IPCC, 2001, Chapter 1).
For the Third Assessment Report (TAR) (IPCC, 2001), Working Groups II and III were again reorganized to deal with adaptation and mitigation, respectively. The concept of mitigative capacity was introduced, and the focus attention was shifted to sustainability concerns (IPCC, 2001, Chapter 1.1). Four cross-cutting issues were identified: costing methods, uncertainties, decision analysis frameworks and development, equity and sustainability (IPCC, 2000b).
The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) summarizes the information contained in previous IPCC reports - including the IPCC special reports on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and on the Global Climate System published since TAR - and assesses the scientific literature published since 2000.
Although the structure of AR4 resembles the macro-outline of the TAR, there are distinct differences between them. The AR4 assigns greater weight to (1) a more detailed resolution of sectoral mitigation options and costs; (2) regional differentiation; (3) emphasizing previous and new cross-cutting issues, such as risks and uncertainties, decision- and policy-making, costs and potentials and the relationships between mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development, air pollution and climate, regional aspects and the issues related to the implementation of UNFCCC Article 2; and (4) the integration of all these aspects.