IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change

Chapter 2: Framing Issues


2.1 Climate change and Sustainable Development

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Background

2.1.3 The dual relationship between climate change and Sustainable Development

2.1.4 The Sustainable Development concept

2.1.5 Development paradigms

2.1.6 International frameworks for evaluating Sustainable Development and climate change links

2.1.7 Implementation of Sustainable Development and climate change policies

2.2 Decision-making

2.2.1 The ‘public good’ character of climate change

2.2.2 Long time horizons

2.2.3 Irreversibility and the implications for decision-making

2.2.4 Risk of catastrophic or abrupt change

2.2.5 Sequential decision-making

2.2.6 Dealing with risks and uncertainty in decision-making

2.2.7 Decision support tools

2.3 Risk and uncertainty

2.3.1 How are risk and uncertainty communicated in this report?

2.3.2 Typologies of risk and uncertainty

2.3.3 Costs, benefits and uncertainties

2.4 Cost and benefit concepts, including private and social cost perspectives and relationships to other decision-making frameworks

2.4.1 Definitions

2.4.2 Major cost determinants

2.4.3 Mitigation potentials and related costs

2.5 Mitigation, vulnerability and adaptation relationships

2.5.1 Integrating mitigation and adaptation in a development context – adaptive and mitigative capacities

2.5.2 Mitigation, adaptation and climate change impacts

2.6 Distributional and equity aspects

2.6.1 Development opportunities and equity

2.6.2 Uncertainty as a frame for distributional and equity aspects

2.6.3 Alternative approaches to social justice

2.6.4 Equity consequences of different policy instruments

2.6.5 Economic efficiency and eventual trade-offs with equity

2.7 Technology

2.7.1 Technology and climate change

2.7.2 Technological change

2.7.3 The international dimension in technology development and deployment: technology transfer

2.8 Regional dimensions


Coordinating Lead Authors:

Kirsten Halsnæs (Denmark), Priyadarshi Shukla (India)

Lead Authors:

Dilip Ahuja (India), Grace Akumu (Kenya), Roger Beale (Australia), Jae Edmonds (USA), Christian Gollier (Belgium), Arnulf Grübler (Austria), Minh Ha Duong (France), Anil Markandya (UK), Mack McFarland (USA), Elena Nikitina (Russia), Taishi Sugiyama (Japan), Arturo

Villavicencio (Equador), Ji Zou (PR China)

Contributing Authors:

Terry Barker (UK), Leon Clarke (USA), Amit Garg (India)

Review Editors:

Ismail Elgizouli (Sudan), Elizabeth Malone (USA)

This chapter should be cited as:

Halsnæs, K., P. Shukla, D. Ahuja, G. Akumu, R. Beale, J. Edmonds, C. Gollier, A. Grübler, M. Ha Duong, A. Markandya, M. McFarland, E. Nikitina, T. Sugiyama, A. Villavicencio, J. Zou, 2007: Framing issues. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, L. A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA