2.1.7 Implementation of Sustainable Development and climate change policies
SD and climate change are influenced by a number of key policy decisions related to economic, social and environmental issues, as well as by business-sector initiatives, private households and many other stakeholders, and these decisions are again framed by government policies, markets, information sharing, culture, and a number of other factors. Some of the decisions that are critically important in this context are investments, use of natural resources, energy consumption, land use, technology choice, and consumption and lifestyle, all of which can lead to both increasing and decreasing GHG emission intensities, which again will have implications for the scope of the mitigation challenge. Seen in a longer-term perspective these decisions are critical determinants for development pathways.
There has been an evolution in our understanding of how SD and climate change mitigation decisions are taken by societies. In particular, this includes a shift from governments that are defined by the nation/state to a more inclusive concept of governance, which recognizes various levels of government (global, transnational/regional, and local), as well as the roles of the private sector, non-governmental actors and civil society. Chapter 12, Section 12.2.3, includes a comprehensive assessment of how state, market, civil society and partnerships play a role in sustainable development and climate change policies.