2.2.7 Decision support tools
Decisions concerning the appropriate responses to climate risks require insights into a variety of possible futures over short to very long time frames and into linkages between biophysical and human systems, as well as ethical alternatives. Structured analysis – both numerical and case-based – can ‘aid understanding by managing and analyzing information and alternatives’ (Arrow et al., 1996a, referenced in Bell et al., 2001). Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) in particular have improved greatly in terms of the richness with which they represent the biophysical, social and economic systems and the feedbacks between them. They have increasingly explored a variety of decision rules or other means of testing alternative policies. Without structured analysis it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to understand the possible effects of alternative policy choices that face decision-makers. Structured analysis can assist choices of preferred policies within interests (for example at the national level) as well as negotiating outcomes between interests (by making regional costs and benefits clearer).
The use of projections and scenarios is one way to develop understanding about choices in the context of unpredictability. These are discussed in detail in Chapter 3.
A large number of analytical approaches can be used as a support to decision-making. IPCC (2001) Chapter 10, provides an extensive overview of decision-making approaches and reviews their applicability at geopolitical levels and in climate policy domains. The review includes decision analysis, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, tolerable windows/safe-landing/guard-rail approaches, game theory, portfolio theory, public finance theory, ethical and cultural prescriptive rules, and various policy dialogue exercises. Integrated assessment, multi-attribute analysis and green accounting approaches are also commonly used decision support tools in climate change debates.
A major distinction between cost benefit-analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and multi-attribute analysis and different applications of these relates to the extent in which monetary values are used to represent the impacts considered. Cost-benefit analysis aims to assign monetary values to the full range of costs and benefits. This involves at least two important assumptions – that it is possible to ‘trade off’ or compensate between impacts on different values in a way that can be expressed in monetary values, and that it is possible to ascertain estimates of these ‘compensation’ values for non-market impacts, such as air pollution, health and biodiversity. By definition, the benefits and costs of climate change policies involve many of such issues, so climate change economic analysis embodies a lot of complicated valuation issues. Section 2.4 goes more into depth about approaches that can be used to value non-markets impacts and the question of discounting.
In multi-attribute analysis, instead of using values derived from markets or from non-market valuation techniques, different dimensions (impacts) are assigned weights – through a stakeholder consultation process, by engaging a panel of experts or by the analyst making explicit decisions. This approach can use quantitative data, qualitative information or a mixture of both. Developing an overall score or ranking for each option allows alternative policies to be assessed, even under conditions of weak comparability. Different functional forms can be used for the aggregation process.
Policy optimization models aim to support the selection of policy/decision strategies and can be divided into a number of types:
- Cost-benefit approaches, which try to balance the costs and benefits of climate policies (including making allowances for uncertainties).
- Target-based approaches, which optimize policy responses, given targets for emission or climate change impacts (again in some instances explicitly acknowledging uncertainties).
- Approaches, which incorporate decision strategies (such as sequential act-learn-act decision-making, hedging strategies etc.) for dealing with uncertainty (often embedded in cost-benefit frameworks).
Another approach is to start with a policy or policies and evaluate the implications of their application. Policy evaluation approaches include:
- Deterministic projection approaches, in which each input and output takes on a single value.
- A stochastic projection approach, in which at least some inputs and outputs take on a range of value.
- Exploratory modelling.
- Public participation processes, such as citizens juries, consultation, and polling.
IAMs aim to combine key elements of biophysical and economic systems into a decision-making framework with various levels of detail on the different sub-components and systems. These models include all different variations on the extent to use monetary values, the integration of uncertainty, and on the formulation of the policy problem with regard to optimization, policy evaluation and stochastic projections. Current integrated assessment research uses one or more of the following methods (Rotmans and Dowlatabadi, 1998):
- Computer-aided IAMs to analyze the behavior of complex systems
- Simulation gaming in which complex systems are represented by simpler ones with relevant behavioral similarity.
- Scenarios as tools to explore a variety of possible images of the future.
- Qualitative integrated assessments based on a limited, heterogeneous data set, without using any model.
A difficulty with large, global models or frameworks is that it is not easy to reflect regional impacts, or equity considerations between regions or stakeholder groups. This is particularly true of ‘global’ cost-benefit approaches, where it is particularly difficult to estimate a marginal benefit curve, as regional differences are likely to be considerable. Such approaches have difficulty in assisting decision-making where there are many decision-makers and multiple interests and values to be taken into account.
Variants of the safe landing/tolerable windows/guard rails approach emphasize the role of regional/national decision-makers by providing them the opportunity to nominate perceived unacceptable impacts of climate change (for their region or globally), and the limit to tolerable socio-economic costs of mitigation measures they would be prepared to accept to avoid that damage (e.g. Toth 2004). Modelling efforts (in an integrated assessment model linking climate and economic variables, and with explicit assumptions about burden sharing through emissions allocations and trading) are then directed at identifying the sets of feasible mitigation paths – known as ‘emissions corridors’ – consistent with these constraints. To the extent that there is some overlap between the acceptable ‘emissions corridors’, the conditions for agreement on mitigation action do exist.
Green accounting attempts to integrate a broader set of social welfare measures into macro-economic studies. These measures can be related to a broad set of social, environmental, and development-oriented policy aspects. The approach has most commonly been used in order to integrate environmental impacts, such as local air pollution, GHG emissions, waste generation, and other polluting substances, into macro-economic studies. Green accounting approaches include both monetary valuation approaches that attempt to calculate a ‘green national product’ (where the economic values of pollutants are subtracted from the national product), and accounting systems that include quantitative non-monetary pollution data.
Halsnæs and Markandya (2002) recognize that decision analysis methods exhibit a number of commonalities in assumptions. The standard approach goes through the selection of GHG emission-reduction options, selection of impact areas that are influenced by policies as for example costs, local air pollution, employment, GHG emissions, and health, definition of baseline case, assessment of the impacts of implementing the GHG emission-reduction policies under consideration, and application of a valuation framework that can be used to compare different policy impacts.
Sociological analysis includes the understanding of how society operates in terms of beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviour, social norms, social structure, regarding climate change. This analysis includes both quantitative and qualitative approaches, such as general surveys, statistics analysis, focus groups, public participation processes, media content analysis, Delphi etc.
All analytical approaches (explicitly or implicitly) have to consider the described elements, whether this is done in order to collect quantitative information that is used in formalized approaches or to provide qualitative information and focus for policy dialogues. Different decision-making approaches will often involve very similar technical analysis in relation to several elements. For example, multi-criteria-analysis, as well as cost-benefit analysis (as, for example, applied in integrated assessment optimization modelling frameworks) and green accounting may use similar inputs and analysis for many model components, but critically diverge when it comes to determining the valuation approach applied to the assessment of multiple policy impacts.