5.5 Policies and measures
This section provides policies and measures for the transport sector, considering experiences of countries and regions in achieving both energy savings (and hence GHG reduction) and sustainable transport systems. An overall policy consideration at the national level and international levels is presented in Chapter 13.3
The policies and measures that have been considered in this section that are commonly applied for the sector and can be effective are:
- Land use and transport planning;
- Taxation and pricing;
- Regulatory and operational instruments (e.g., traffic management, control and information);
- Fuel economy standards – road transport;
- Transport demand management;
- Non-climate policies influencing GHG emissions;
- Co-benefits and ancillary benefits.
This section discusses climate policies related to GHG from international aviation and shipping separately, reflecting the international coordination that is required for effective reduction strategies in these sectors. Both sectors are subject to a global legal framework and mitigation policies applied on a unilateral basis may reduce its environmental effectiveness due to evasion (Wit et al., 2004).