5.3.1 Road transport
GHG emissions associated with vehicles can be reduced by four types of measures:
1. Reducing the loads (weight, rolling and air resistance and accessory loads) on the vehicle, thus reducing the work needed to operate it;
2. Increasing the efficiency of converting the fuel energy to work, by improving drive train efficiency and recapturing energy losses;
3. Changing to a less carbon-intensive fuel; and
4. Reducing emissions of non-CO2 GHGs from vehicle exhaust and climate controls.
The loads on the vehicle consist of the force needed to accelerate the vehicle, to overcome inertia; vehicle weight when climbing slopes; the rolling resistance of the tyres; aerodynamic forces; and accessory loads. In urban stop-and-go driving, aerodynamic forces play little role, but rolling resistance and especially inertial forces are critical. In steady highway driving, aerodynamic forces dominate, because these forces increase with the square of velocity; aerodynamic forces at 90 km/h are four times the forces at 45 km/h. Reducing inertial loads is accomplished by reducing vehicle weight, with improved design and greater use of lightweight materials. Reducing tyre losses is accomplished by improving tyre design and materials, to reduce the tyres’ rolling resistance coefficient, as well as by maintaining proper tyre pressure; weight reduction also contributes, because tyre losses are a linear function of vehicle weight. And reducing aerodynamic forces is accomplished by changing the shape of the vehicle, smoothing vehicle surfaces, reducing the vehicle’s cross-section, controlling airflow under the vehicle and other measures. Measures to reduce the heating and cooling needs of the passengers, for example by changing window glass to reflect incoming solar radiation, are included in the group of measures.
Increasing the efficiency with which the chemical energy in the fuel is transformed into work, to move the vehicle and provide comfort and other services to passengers, will also reduce GHG emissions. This includes measures to improve engine efficiency and the efficiency of the rest of the drive train and accessories, including air conditioning and heating. The range of measures here is quite great; for example, engine efficiency can be improved by three different kinds of measures, increasing thermodynamic efficiency, reducing frictional losses and reducing pumping losses (these losses are the energy needed to pump air and fuel into the cylinders and push out the exhaust) and each kind of measure can be addressed by a great number of design, material and technology changes. Improvements in transmissions can reduce losses in the transmission itself and help engines to operate in their most efficient modes. Also, some of the energy used to overcome inertia and accelerate the vehicle – normally lost when the vehicle is slowed, to aerodynamic forces and rolling resistance as well to the mechanical brakes (as heat) – may be recaptured as electrical energy if regenerative braking is available (see the discussion of hybrid electric drive trains).
The use of different liquid fuels, in blends with gasoline and diesel or as ‘neat fuels’ require minimal or no changes to the vehicle, while a variety of gaseous fuels and electricity would require major changes. Alternative liquid fuels include ethanol, biodiesel and methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel made from natural gas, coal, or other feedstocks. Gaseous fuels include natural gas, propane, dimethyl ether (a diesel substitute) and hydrogen. Each fuel can be made from multiple sources, with a wide range of GHG emission consequences. In evaluating the effects of different fuels on GHG emissions, it is crucial to consider GHG emissions associated with fuel production and distribution in addition to vehicle tailpipe emissions (see the section on well-to-wheels analysis). For example, the consumption of hydrogen produces no emissions aside from water directly from the vehicle, but GHG emissions from hydrogen production can be quite high if the hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels (unless the carbon dioxide from the hydrogen production is sequestered).
The sections that follow discuss a number of technology, design and fuel measures to reduce GHG emissions from vehicles.