5.5.1 Surface transport
A wide array of policies and strategies has been employed in different circumstances around the world to restrain vehicle usage, manage traffic congestion and reduce energy use, GHGs, and air pollution. There tends to be considerable overlap among these policies and strategies, often with synergistic effects. The recent history almost everywhere in the world has been increasing travel, bigger vehicles, decreasing land-use densities and sprawling cities. But some cities are far less dependent on motor vehicles and far denser than others, even at the same incomes. The potential exists to greatly reduce transport energy use and GHG emissions by shaping the design of cities, restraining motorization and altering the attributes of vehicles and fuels. Indeed, slowing the growth in vehicle use through land-use planning and through policies that restrain increases in vehicle use would be an important accomplishment. Planning and policy to restrain vehicles and densify land use not only lead to reduced GHG emissions, but also reduced pollution, traffic congestion, oil use, and infrastructure expenditures and are generally consistent with social equity goals as well.