IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change Implement commissioning and improve operations and maintenance

The actual performance of a building depends as much on the quality of construction as on the quality of the design itself. Building commissioning is a quality control process that includes design review, functional testing of energy-consuming systems and components, and clear documentation for the owner and operators. Actual building energy performance also depends critically on how well the building is operated and maintained. Continuous performance monitoring, automated diagnostics and improved operator training are complementary approaches to improving the operation of commercial buildings in particular. Change behaviour

The energy use of a building also depends on the behaviour and decisions of occupants and owners. Classic studies at Princeton University showed energy use variations of more than a factor of two between houses that were identical but had different occupants (Socolow, 1978). Levermore (1985) found a variation of 40% gas consumption and 54% electricity consumption in nine identical children’s homes in a small area of London. When those in charge of the homes knew that their consumption was being monitored, the electricity consumption fell. Behaviour of the occupants of non-residential buildings also has a substantial impact on energy use, especially when the lighting, heating and ventilation are controlled manually (Ueno et al., 2006).