6.4.12 Supermarket refrigeration systems
Mitigation options for food-sales and service buildings, especially supermarkets and hypermarkets extend beyond the energy savings mitigation options reviewed so far (e.g., high efficiency electric lighting, daylighting, etc.). Because these buildings often employ large quantities of HFC refrigerants in extensive and often leaky systems, a significant share of total GHG emissions are due to the release of the refrigerant. In all, emissions of the refrigerant can be greater than the emissions due to the system energy use (IPCC/TEAP, 2005).
Two basic mitigation options are reviewed in IPCC/TEAP report: leak reduction and alternative system design. Refrigerant leakage rates are estimated to be around 30% of banked system charge. Leakage rates can be reduced by system design for tightness, maintenance procedures for early detection and repairs of leakage, personnel training, system leakage record keeping and end-of-life recovery of refrigerant. Alternative system design involves for example, applying direct systems using alternative refrigerants, better containment, distributed systems, indirect systems or cascade systems. It was found that up to 60% lower LCCP values can be obtained by alternative system design (IPCC/TEAP, 2005).