6.4.3 Heating systems
18.104.22.168 Passive solar heating
Passive solar heating can involve extensive sun-facing glazing, various wall- or roof-mounted solar air collectors, double-façade wall construction, airflow windows, thermally massive walls behind glazing and preheating or pre-cooling of ventilation air through buried pipes. Technical details concerning conventional and more advanced passive solar heating techniques, real-world examples and data on energy savings are provided in books by Hastings (1994), Hestnes et al. (2003) and Hastings (2004). Aggressive envelope measures combined with optimisation of passive solar heating opportunities, as exemplified by the European Passive House Standard, have achieved reductions in purchased heating energy by factors of five to thirty (i.e., achieving heating levels less than 15 kWh/m2/yr even in moderately cold climates, compared to 220 and 250–400 kWh/m2/yr for the average of existing buildings in Germany and Central/Eastern Europe, respectively (Krapmeier and Drössler, 2001; Gauzin-Müller, 2002; Kostengünstige Passivhäuser als europäische Standards, 2005).