7.4 Process-specific technologies and measures
This section discusses process specific mitigation options. Barriers to the implementation of these options are discussed in Section 7.6. The section focuses on energy intensive industries: iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, chemicals, petroleum refining, minerals (cement, lime and glass) and pulp and paper. IEA (2006a) reported that these industries (ex-petroleum refining) accounted for 72% of industrial final energy use in 2003. With petroleum refining, the total is about 85%. A subsection covers the food industry, which is not a major contributor to global industrial GHG emissions, but is a large contributor to these emissions in many developing countries. Subsections also cover other industries and inter-industry options, where the use of one industry’s waste as a feedstock or energy source by another industry can reduce overall emissions (See Section 7.4.9). All the industries discussed in this section can benefit from application of the sector-wide technologies (process optimization, energy efficiency, etc.) discussed in Section 7.3. The application of these technologies will not be discussed again.