8.6.2 Barriers and opportunities/implementation issues
The commonly mentioned barriers to adoption of carbon sequestration activities on agricultural lands include the following:
Maximum Storage: Carbon sequestration in soils or terrestrial biomass has a maximum capacity for the ecosystem, which may be reached after 15 to 60 years, depending on management practice, management history, and the system (West and Post, 2002). However, sequestration is a rapidly and cheaply deployable mitigation option, until more capital-intensive developments, and longer-lasting actions become available (Caldeira et al., 2004; Sands and McCarl, 2005).
Reversibility: A subsequent change in management can reverse the gains in carbon sequestration over a similar period of time. Not all agricultural mitigation options are reversible; reduction in N2O and CH4 emissions, avoided emissions as a result of agricultural energy efficiency gains or substitution of fossil fuels by bio-energy are non-reversible.
Baseline: The GHG net emission reductions need to be assessed relative to a baseline. Selection of an appropriate baseline to measure management-induced soil carbon changes is still an obstacle in some mitigation projects. The extent of practices already in place in project regions will need to be determined for the baseline.
Uncertainty: This has two components: mechanism uncertainty and measurement uncertainty. Uncertainty about the complex biological and ecological processes involved in GHG emissions and carbon storage in agricultural systems makes investors more wary of these options than of more clear-cut industrial mitigation activities. This barrier can be reduced by investment in research. Secondly, agricultural systems exhibit substantial variability between seasons and locations, creating high variability in offset quantities at the farm level. This variability can be reduced by increasing the geographical extent and duration of the accounting unit (e.g., multi-region, multi-year contracts; Kim and McCarl, 2005).
Displacement of Emissions: Adopting certain agricultural mitigation practices may reduce production within implementing regions, which, in turn, may be offset by increased production outside the project region unconstrained by GHG mitigation objectives, reducing the net emission reductions. ‘Wall-to-wall’ accounting can detect this, and crediting correction factors may need to be employed (Murray et al., 2004; US-EPA, 2005).
Transaction costs: Under an incentive-based system such as a carbon market, the amount of money farmers receive is not the market price, but the market price less brokerage cost. This may be substantial, and is an increasing fraction as the amount of carbon involved diminishes, creating a serious entry barrier for smallholders. For example, a 50 kt contract needs 25 kha under soil carbon management (uptake ~ 2 tCO2 ha/yr). In developing countries, this could involve many thousands of farmers.
Measurement and monitoring costs: Mooney et al. (2004) argue that such costs are likely to be small (under 2% of the contract), but other studies disagree (Smith, 2004c). In general, measurement costs per carbon-credit sold decrease as the quantity of carbon sequestered and area sampled increase. Methodological advances in measuring soil carbon may reduce costs and increase the sensitivity of change detection. However, improved methods to account for changes in soil bulk density remain a hindrance to quantification of changes in soil carbon stocks (Izaurralde and Rice, 2006). Development of remote sensing, new spectral techniques to measure soil carbon, and modelling offer opportunities to reduce costs but will require evaluation (Izaurralde and Rice, 2006, Brown et al., 2006; Ogle and Paustian, 2005; Gehl and Rice, 2007).
Property rights: Property rights, landholdings, and the lack of a clear single-party land ownership in certain areas may inhibit implementation of management changes.
Other barriers: Other possible barriers to implementation include the availability of capital, the rate of capital stock turnover, the rate of technological development, risk attitudes, need for research and outreach, consistency with traditional practices, pressure for competing uses of agricultural land and water, demand for agricultural products, high costs for certain enabling technologies (e.g., soil tests before fertilization), and ease of compliance (e.g., straw burning is quicker than residue removal and can also control some weeds and diseases, so farmers favour straw burning).