9.6.6 Lessons learned from project-based afforestation and reforestation since 2000
Experience is limited by the fact that Joint Implementation is not operational yet, and the first call for afforestation and reforestation (A/R) methodologies under CDM was only issued in September 2004. In addition, the modalities and procedures for CDM A/R as decided in December 2003 are complex. Nevertheless, the capacities built up through the development of projects and related methodologies should not be underestimated. As of November 2006, 27 methodologies were submitted, 17 from Latin America, four from Asia and Africa respectively, and two from Eastern Europe. The four which were approved by the CDM Executive Board relate to projects located in China, Moldova, Albania and Honduras and all consist of planting forests on degraded agricultural land. In anticipation of Joint Implementation, several projects are under development in several Annex I countries in Eastern Europe, notably in Romania, Ukraine and the Czech Republic.
There are voluntary project-based activities in the USA, with a programme for trading certificates established by the Chicago Climate Exchange (Robins, 2005). The Voluntary Reporting (1605 (b)) Program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE, 2005) provides reporting guidelines for forestry activities. Since the Special Report on LULUCF (IPCC, 2000a), there has been methodological progress in several areas discussed below.