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Figure 1.1a Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas trends, 1970–2004.
One-hundred year global warming potentials (GWPs) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1996 (SAR) were used to convert emissions to CO2 equivalents (see the UNFCCC reporting guidelines). Gases are those reported under UNFCCC reporting guidelines. The uncertainty in the graph is quite large for CH4 and N2O (of the order of 30–50%) and even larger for CO2 from agriculture and forestry.
1. Other N2O includes industrial processes, deforestation/savannah burning, waste water and waste incineration.
2. Other is CH4 from industrial processes and savannah burning.
3. Including emissions from bio energy production and use.
4. CO2 emissions from decay (decomposition) of above ground biomass that remains after logging and deforestation and CO2 from peat fires and decay of drained peat soils.
5. As well as traditional biomass use at 10% of total, assuming 90% is from sustainable biomass production. Corrected for the 10% of carbon in biomass that is assumed to remain as charcoal after combustion.
6. For large-scale forest and scrubland biomass burning averaged data for 1997-2002 based on Global Fire Emissions Data base satellite data.
7. Cement production and natural gas flaring.
8. Fossil fuel use includes emissions from feedstocks.
Source: Adapted from Olivier et al., 2005; 2006; Hooijer et al., 2006
Figure 1.1b Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004.
Source: Adapted from Olivier et al., 2005, 2006