IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change

Figure 4.4: Global energy flows (EJ in 2004) from primary energy through carriers to end-uses and losses. Related carbon dioxide emissions from coal, gas and oil combustion are also shown, as well as resources (vertical bars to the left).

Notes: See also Table 4.2. Note that the IEA (2006b) data on known reserves and estimated resources, as used here, differ from the data in Table 4.2 that uses a breakdown in conventional and unconventional. The latter category may include some quantities shown as resources in Figure 4.26.

1) The current capacity of energy carriers is shown by the width of the lines.

2) Further energy conversion steps may take place in the end-use sectors, such as the conversion of natural gas into heat and/or electricity on site at the individual consumer level.

3) ‘Buildings’ include residential, commercial, public service and agricultural.

4) Peat is included with coal. Organic waste is included with biomass.

5) The resource efficiency ratio by which fast-neutron technology increases the power-generation capability per tonne of natural uranium varies greatly from the OECD assessment of 30:1 (OECD, 2006b). In this diagram the ratio used is up to 240:1 (OECD,2006c).

6) Comparisons can be made with SRES B2 scenario projections for 2030 energy supply, as shown in Figure 4.26.

Source: IEA, 2006b.