Figure 5.13: Projections for transport GHG emissions in 2020 for some cities of developing countries
Notes: Components of the Low 2020 scenario:
Delhi (Bose and Sperling, 2001): Completion of planned busways and rail transit, land-use planning for high density development around railway stations, network of dedicated bus lanes, promotion of bicycle use, including purchase subsidies and special lanes, promotion of car sharing, major push for more natural gas use in vehicles, economic re-straints on personal vehicles.
Shanghai (Zhou and Sperling, 2001): Emphasis on rapid rail system growth, high density development at railway sta-tions, bicycle promotion with new bike lanes and parking at transit stations, auto industry focus on minicars and farm cars rather than larger vehicles, incentives for use of high tech in minicars – electric, hybrid, fuel cell drive trains, promotion of car sharing.
Chile (O’Ryan et al., 2002): Overall focus on stronger use of market-based policy to insure that vehicle users pay the full costs of driving, internalizing costs of pollution and congestion, parking surcharges and restrictions, vehicle fees, and road usage fees, improvements in bus and rail systems, encouragement of minicars, with lenient usage and parking rules and strong commitment to alternative fuels, especially natural gas. By 2020, all taxis and 10% of other light and medium vehicles will use natural gas; all new buses will use hydrogen, improvements in bus and rail sys-tems.
South Africa (Prozzi et al., 2002): Land-use policies towards more efficient growth patterns, strong push to improve public transport, including use of busways in dense corridors, provision of new and better buses, strong government oversight of the minibus jitney industry, incentives to moderate private car use, coal-based synfuels shifts to imported natural gas as a feedstock
Source: Sperling and Salon, 2002.