Interactions of mitigation options with vulnerability and adaptation
Many energy systems are themselves vulnerable to climate change. Fossil fuel based offshore and coastal oil and gas extraction systems are vulnerable to extreme weather events. Cooling of conventional and nuclear power plants may become problematic if river waters are warmer. Renewable energy resources can also be affected adversely by climate change (such as solar systems impacted by changes in cloud cover; hydropower generation influenced by changes in river discharge, glaciers and snow melt; windpower influenced by changing wind velocity; and energy crop yields reduced by drought and higher temperatures). Some adaptation measures to climate change, like air-conditioning and water pumps use energy and may contribute to even higher CO2 emissions, and thus necessitate even more mitigation (high agreement, limited evidence) [4.5.5].
Effectiveness of and experience with climate policies, potentials, barriers, opportunities and implementation issues
The need for immediate short-term action in order to make any significant impact in the longer term has become apparent, as has the need to apply the whole spectrum of policy instruments, since no single instrument will enable a large-scale transition in energy-supply systems on a global basis. Large-scale energy conversion technologies have a life of several decades and hence a turnover of only 1–3% per year. That means that policy decisions taken today will affect the rate of deployment of carbon-emitting technologies for several decades. They will have profound consequences on development paths, especially in a rapidly developing world [4.1].
Economic and regulatory instruments have been employed. Approaches to encourage the greater uptake of low-carbon energy-supply systems include reducing fossil fuel subsidies and stimulating front-runners in specific technologies through active government involvement in market creation (such as in Denmark for wind energy and Japan with solar photovoltaic (PV)). Reducing fossil fuel subsidies has been difficult, as it meets resistance by vested interests. In terms of support for renewable-electricity projects, feed-in-tariffs have been more effective than green certificate trading systems based on quotas. However, with increasing shares of renewables in the power mix, the adjustment of such tariffs becomes an issue. Tradable permit systems and the use of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms are expected to contribute substantially to emission reductions (medium agreement, medium evidence) [4.5].