Technology research, development, deployment, diffusion and transfer
Many of the mitigation strategies outlined for the agriculture sector employ existing technology. For example, reduction in emissions per unit of production will be achieved by increases in crop yields and animal productivity. Such increases in productivity can occur through a wide range of practices − better management, genetically modified crops, improved cultivars, fertilizer-recom-mendation systems, precision agriculture, improved animal breeds, improved animal nutrition, dietary additives and growth promoters, improved animal fertility, bioenergy feed stocks, anaerobic slurry digestion and CH4 capture systems − all of which reflect existing technology (high agreement, much evidence). Some strategies involve new uses of existing technologies. For example, oils have been used in animal diets for many years to increase dietary energy content, but their role and feasibility as a CH4 suppressant is still new and not fully defined. For some technologies, more research and development will be needed [8.9].
Global food demand may double by 2050, leading to intensified production practices (e.g., increasing use of nitrogen fertilizer). In addition, projected increases in the consumption of livestock products will increase CH4 and N2O emissions if livestock numbers increase, leading to growing emissions in the baseline after 2030. (high agreement, medium evidence). Agricultural mitigation measures will help to reduce GHG emissions per unit of product, relative to the baseline. However, until 2030 only about 10% of the mitigation potential is related to CH4 and N2O. Deployment of new mitigation practices for livestock systems and fertilizer applications will be essential to prevent an increase in emissions from agriculture after 2030.
Projecting long-term mitigation potentials is also hampered by other uncertainties. For example, the effects of climate change are unclear: future climate change may reduce soil carbon-sequestration rates, or could even release soil carbon, though the effect is uncertain as climate change may also increase soil carbon inputs through higher plant production. Some studies have suggested that technological improvements could potentially counteract the negative impacts of climate change on cropland and grassland soil carbon stocks, making technological improvement a key factor in future GHG mitigation. Such technologies could, for example, act through increasing production, thereby increasing carbon returns to the soil and reducing the demand for fresh cropland. (high agreement, medium evidence) [8.10].