This chapter includes thirty case studies illustrating issues discussed in
the earlier chapters of this report. The objective of including these case studies
is to demonstrate the distinctive problems and special opportunities that managers
and implementers are likely to encounter in dealing with technology transfer.
This chapter is the work of 30 coordinating and lead authors from 13 countries
(Belgium, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Peru, Samoa, Switzerland, Uganda,
Uruguay, Ukraine, and the United States). Additional experts from many countries
served as peer reviewers. These experts have been drawn from national and regional
government agencies, public and private research organisations, multinational
and local companies, industry and environmental non-governmental organisations
(NGOs) and by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The cases included in this chapter encompass both mitigation and adaptation
strategies within the context of climate change. Case studies in mitigation
include initiatives to foster dematerialisation, de-carbonisation of energy
sources, industrial ecology, dissemination and commercialisation of renewable
energy technologies, energy efficiency programmes, and household biomass energy
usage. Additional case studies are included where institutional reform and market
transformation efforts have led to conservation and the protection and use of
indigenous resources. Case studies on adaptation focus primarily on technologies/practices
in the agriculture and forestry sectors, mitigation of health impacts, and tools
and strategies for coastal management. While some information from these cases
appear throughout this volume, this chapter provides a consistent methodological
approach to the case study research that enables a comparative analysis of approaches,
challenges, and lessons learned.
Over the past decade, government, non-governmental, grass-roots, and private
sector institutions and organisations have worked-with varying degrees of success-to
develop, implement, and commercialise a diverse mix of environmentally sound
technologies (ESTs) and resource management methods. These efforts provide valuable
insights for actions that can be taken in a variety of sectors for enhancing
adoption and use of mitigation and adaptation technologies.
Renewable energy technologies (RETs), for example, are increasingly used throughout
the world to address energy shortages and to expand the range of services in
both rural and urban areas. In Kenya over 80,000 small (20-100 Wp) photovoltaic
solar home systems, battery charging stations and other small enterprises have
been commercially financed and installed (Hankins, 1993; Acker and Kammen, 1996),
while a government programme in Mexico has disseminated over 40,000 systems.
In the Inner Mongolian autonomous region of China over 130,000 portable windmills
provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households
in this region (Byrne et al., 1998). In all these projects, the case studies
demonstrate that the competitive market can be used to generate interest in
renewables, as long as there is a baseline awareness of the technology and early
market deployment is targeted at the parties most willing to participate.
Other lessons are learned from programmes that disseminate and encourage the
use of improved biomass cookstoves, which are active in more than fifty nations.
In India, a government programme has disseminated over eight million improved
cookstoves, while nationally coordinated district-level initiatives in China
account for over 120 million stoves (Smith et al., 1993; Barnes et al., 1994),
and public-private partnerships in Kenya have introduced improved cookstoves
to over half of the urban populace (Kammen, 1995a, b). In India, the construction
of biogas digesters is supported by a government subsidy while maintenance and
educational outreach is available from a mobile 'technology clinic' provided
by a non governmental organisation (NGO). A variety of international networks
exist to promote and support the dissemination of improved cookstoves and other
improved efficiency biomass technologies. Dozens of successful programmes have
used community outreach to promote the new technologies.
Cases in the industrial sector identify information programmes as an important
first step for selecting appropriate technology for a specific service. Programmes
that specifically aim to increase consumers' awareness, acceptance, and use
of particular technologies are designed to assist consumers in understanding
and adopting more efficient technologies and practices. While information is
seen to be a key factor in some cases, environmental legislation or the regulatory
framework for enforcing standards can prove to be a crucial factor in the adoption
of advanced technologies, as in the case of India (TERI, 1997).
These examples provide just a few of the insights gained from these case studies.
A similar range of programmes and lessons exists in each of the areas of technology
transfer covered in this chapter and in this volume as a whole.
The number and magnitude of these programmes marks a qualitative departure
from past efforts to develop and transfer ESTs into general use. Increasingly,
lessons from these projects encompass not only technical insights, but equally
valuable economic and social analysis as well. The current reliance on market-forces
and sustainable institutions for climate protection requires the incorporation
of local knowledge in research and implementation of incentive programmes, innovative
ownership and leasing arrangements, and in some cases subsidies (Cabraal et
al., 1995; Inversin, 1996).