IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

2.8.6 Efficacy and the Forcing-Response Relationship

Efficacy is a new concept introduced since the TAR and its physical understanding is becoming established (see Section 2.8.5). When employing the stratospherically adjusted RF, there is medium confidence that efficacies are within the 0.75 to 1.25 range for most realistic RF mechanisms aside from aerosol and stratospheric ozone changes. There is medium confidence that realistic aerosol and ozone changes have efficacies within the 0.5 to 2.0 range. Further, zero-surface-temperature-change RFs are very likely to have efficacies significantly closer to 1.0 for all mechanisms. It should be noted that efficacies have only been evaluated in GCMs and actual climate efficacies could be different from those quoted in Section 2.8.5.