IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis

´╗┐Figure 2.14. Radiative forcing due to the cloud albedo effect, in the context of liquid water clouds, from the global climate models that appear in Table 2.7. The labels next to the bars correspond to the published study; the notes of Table 2.7 explain the species abbreviations listed on the left hand side. Top panel: results for models that consider a limited number of species, primarily anthropogenic sulphate (S). Bottom panel: results from studies that include a variety of aerosol compositions and mixtures; the estimates here cover a larger range than those in the top panel. Chen and Penner (2005) presented a sensitivity study obtained by changing parametrizations in their model, so the results can be considered independent and are thus listed separately. Penner et al. (2006) is an intercomparison study, so the results of the individual models are listed separately.´╗┐