Figure 3.26. The PNA (left) and NAO (right) teleconnection patterns, shown as one-point correlation maps of 500 hPa geopotential heights for boreal winter (DJF) over 1958 to 2005. In the left panel, the reference point is 45°N, 165°W, corresponding to the primary centre of action of the PNA pattern, given by the + sign. In the right panel, the NAO pattern is illustrated based on a reference point of 65°N, 30°W. Negative correlation coefficients are dashed, and the contour increment is 0.2. Adapted from Hurrell et al. (2003).