TS.2.1 Greenhouse Gases
The dominant factor in the radiative forcing of climate in the industrial era is the increasing concentration of various greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Several of the major greenhouse gases occur naturally but increases in their atmospheric concentrations over the last 250 years are due largely to human activities. Other greenhouse gases are entirely the result of human activities. The contribution of each greenhouse gas to radiative forcing over a particular period of time is determined by the change in its concentration in the atmosphere over that period and the effectiveness of the gas in perturbing the radiative balance. Current atmospheric concentrations of the different greenhouse gases considered in this report vary by more than eight orders of magnitude (factor of 108), and their radiative efficiencies vary by more than four orders of magnitude (factor of 104), reflecting the enormous diversity in their properties and origins.
The current concentration of a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is the net result of the history of its past emissions and removals from the atmosphere. The gases and aerosols considered here are emitted to the atmosphere by human activities or are formed from precursor species emitted to the atmosphere. These emissions are offset by chemical and physical removal processes. With the important exception of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is generally the case that these processes remove a specific fraction of the amount of a gas in the atmosphere each year and the inverse of this removal rate gives the mean lifetime for that gas. In some cases, the removal rate may vary with gas concentration or other atmospheric properties (e.g., temperature or background chemical conditions).
Long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs), for example, CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), are chemically stable and persist in the atmosphere over time scales of a decade to centuries or longer, so that their emission has a long-term influence on climate. Because these gases are long lived, they become well mixed throughout the atmosphere much faster than they are removed and their global concentrations can be accurately estimated from data at a few locations. Carbon dioxide does not have a specific lifetime because it is continuously cycled between the atmosphere, oceans and land biosphere and its net removal from the atmosphere involves a range of processes with different time scales.
Short-lived gases (e.g., sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide) are chemically reactive and generally removed by natural oxidation processes in the atmosphere, by removal at the surface or by washout in precipitation; their concentrations are hence highly variable. Ozone is a significant greenhouse gas that is formed and destroyed by chemical reactions involving other species in the atmosphere. In the troposphere, the human influence on ozone occurs primarily through changes in precursor gases that lead to its formation, whereas in the stratosphere, the human influence has been primarily through changes in ozone removal rates caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances.