2.2.7 Managing uncertainties and confidence levels
CCIAV assessments aim to understand and manage as much of the full range of uncertainty, extending from emissions through to vulnerability (Ahmad et al., 2001), as is practicable, in order to improve the decision-making process. At the same time, a primary aim of scientific investigations is to reduce uncertainty through improved knowledge. However, such investigations do not necessarily reduce the uncertainty range as used by CCIAV assessments. A phenomenon or process is usually described qualitatively before it can be quantified with any confidence; some, such as aspects of socio-economic futures, may never be well quantified (Morgan and Henrion, 1990). Often a scientific advance will expand a bounded range of uncertainty as a new process is quantified and incorporated into the chain of consequences contributing to that range. Examples include an expanded range of future global warming due to positive CO2 feedbacks, from the response of vegetation to climate change (see Section 2.2.5; WG I SPM), and a widened range of future impacts that can be incurred by incorporating development futures in integrated impact assessments, particularly if adaptation is included (see Section 18.104.22.168). In such cases, although uncertainty appears to be expanding, this is largely because the underlying process is becoming better understood.
The variety of different approaches developed and applied since the TAR all have their strengths and weaknesses. The impact assessment approach is particularly susceptible to ballooning uncertainties because of the limits of prediction (e.g., Jones 2001). Probabilistic methods and the use of thresholds are two ways in which these uncertainties are being managed (Jones and Mearns, 2005; see also Section 2.4.8). Another way to manage uncertainties is through participatory approaches, resulting in learning-by-observation and learning-by-doing, a particular strength of vulnerability and adaptation approaches (e.g., Tompkins and Adger, 2005; UNDP, 2005). Stakeholder participation establishes credibility and stakeholders are more likely to ‘own’ the results, increasing the likelihood of successful adaptation (McKenzie Hedger et al., 2006).