IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

8.6.2 Integration of responses across scales

Adaptation responses to specific health risks will often cut across scales. For example, an integrated response to heatwaves could include, in addition to measures already discussed, consideration of climate change projections in the design and construction of new buildings and in the planning of new urban areas (Kovats and Koppe, 2005). In addition, national energy efficiency programmes and transport policies could include approaches for reducing both urban heat islands and emissions of ozone and other air pollutants.

Interventions designed to increase the adaptive capacity of a community or region could also facilitate the achievement of greenhouse gas mitigation targets. For example, measures to reduce the urban heat-island effect, such as planting trees, roof gardens, growth planned to reduce urban heat islands, and other measures, increase the resilience of communities to heatwaves while reducing energy requirements. Increasing the proportion of energy derived from solar, wind and other renewable resources would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels.