1.4.2 Technology cooperation and transfer
Effective and efficient mitigation of climate change depends on the rate of global diffusion and transfer of new as well as existing technologies. To share information and development costs, international cooperation initiatives for RDDD&D, such as the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), the International Partnership for Hydrogen Economy (IPHE), the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), the Methane to Markets Partnership and the Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), the Global Bioenergy Partnership and the ITER fusion project, were undertaken. Their mandates range from basic R&D and market demonstration to barrier removals for commercialization/diffusion. In addition, there are 40 ‘implementing agreements’ facilitating international cooperation on RDDD&D under IEA auspices, covering all of the key new technologies of energy supply and end use with the exception of nuclear fission (IEA, 2005).
Regional cooperation may be effective as well. Asia-Pacific Partnership of Clean Development and Climate (APPCDC), which was established by Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and the USA in January 2006, aims to address increased energy needs and associated challenges, including air pollution, energy security, and climate change, by enhancing the development, deployment and transfer of cleaner, more efficient technologies. In September 2005, the EU concluded agreements with India and China, respectively, with the aim of promoting the development of cleaner technologies (India) and low carbon technologies (China).
Bilateral sector-based cooperation agreements also exist. One example is the Japan/China agreement on energy efficiency in the steel industry, concluded in July 2005 (JISF, 2005). These sector-based initiatives may be an effective tool for technology transfer and mitigating GHG emissions.
It is expected that CDM and JI under the Kyoto Protocol will play important role for technology transfer as well.