IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change

Chapter 7: Industry


7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Status of the sector

7.1.2 Development trends

7.1.3 Emission trends

7.2 Industrial mitigation matrix

7.3 Industrial sector-wide operating procedures and technologies

7.3.1 Management practices, including benchmarking

7.3.2 Energy efficiency

7.3.3 Fuel switching, including the use of waste materials

7.3.4 Heat and power recovery

7.3.5 Renewable energy

7.3.6 Materials efficiency and recycling

7.3.7 Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), including oxy-fuel combustion

7.4 Process-specific technologies and measures

7.4.1 Iron and steel

7.4.2 Non-ferrous metals

7.4.3 Chemicals and fertilizers

7.4.4 Petroleum refining

7.4.5 Minerals

7.4.6 Pulp and paper

7.4.7 Food

7.4.8 Other industries

7.4.9 Inter-industry options

7.5 Short- and medium-term mitigation potential and cost

7.5.1 Electricity savings

7.5.2 Non-CO2 gases

7.5.3 Summary and comparison with other studies

7.6 Barriers to industrial GHG mitigation

7.7 Sustainable Development (SD) implications of industrial GHG mitigation

7.8 Interaction of mitigation technologies with vulnerability and adaptation

7.9 Effectiveness of and experience with policies

7.9.1 Kyoto mechanisms (CDM and JI)

7.9.2 Voluntary GHG programmes and agreements

7.9.3 Financial instruments: taxes, subsidies and access to capital

7.9.4 Regional and national GHG emissions trading programmes

7.9.5 Regulation of non-CO2 gases

7.9.6 Energy and technology policies

7.9.7 Sustainable Development policies

7.9.8 Air quality policies

7.9.9 Waste management policies

7.10 Co-benefits of industrial GHG mitigation

7.11 Technology Research, Development, Deployment and Diffusion (RDD&D)

7.11.1 Public sector

7.11.2 Private sector

7.12 Long-term outlook, system transitions, decision-making and inertia

7.12.1 Longer-term mitigation options

7.12.2 System transitions, inertia and decision-making

7.13 Key uncertainties and gaps in knowledge


Coordinating Lead Authors:

Lenny Bernstein (USA), Joyashree Roy (India)

Lead Authors:

K. Casey Delhotal (USA), Jochen Harnisch (Germany), Ryuji Matsuhashi (Japan), Lynn Price (USA), Kanako Tanaka (Japan), Ernst Worrell (The Netherlands), Francis Yamba (Zambia), Zhou Fengqi (China)

Contributing Authors:

Stephane de la Rue du Can (France), Dolf Gielen (The Netherlands), Suzanne Joosen (The Netherlands), Manaswita Konar (India), Anna Matysek (Australia), Reid Miner (USA), Teruo Okazaki (Japan), Johan Sanders (The Netherlands), Claudia Sheinbaum Parado (Mexico)

Review Editors:

Olav Hohmeyer (Germany), Shigetaka Seki (Japan)

This chapter should be cited as:

Bernstein, L., J. Roy, K. C. Delhotal, J. Harnisch, R. Matsuhashi, L. Price, K. Tanaka, E. Worrell, F. Yamba, Z. Fengqi, 2007: Industry.

In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.