Figure Atlas.30 | (Upper panels) Time series of annual surface mass balance (SMB) rates (in Gt a–1) for the Greenland Ice Sheet and its regions (shown in the inset map) for the periods 1972–2018 (Mouginot et al., 2019) and 1980–2012 (Fettweis et al., 2020) using 13 different models. (Lower panels) Time series of annual SMB rates (in Gt a–1) for the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet (excluding ice shelves) and its regions (shown in the inset map) for the periods 1979–2019 (Rignot et al., 2019) and 1980–2016 (Mottram et al., 2021) using five Polar-CORDEX regional climate models. The Antarctic inset map also shows the location of the stations discussed in Atlas.11.1.2 where observations are available for at least 50 years. Colours indicate near-surface air temperature trends for 1957–2016 (circles) and 1979–2016 (diamonds) statistically significant at 90% (Jones et al. 2019; Turner et al. 2020). Stations with an asterisk (*) are where significance estimates disagree between the two publications. Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table Atlas.SM.15).