Figure 1.23 | The principle of emergent constraints. An ensemble of models (blue dots) defines a relationship between an observable mean, trend or variation in the climate (x-axis) and an uncertain projection, climate sensitivity or feedback (y-axis). An observation of the x-axis variable can then be combined with the model-derived relationship to provide a tighter estimate of the climate projection, sensitivity or feedback on the y-axis. Figure adapted from Eyring et al. (2019).