Figure 4.9 | CMIP6 simulations of boreal winter (December–January–February, DJF) Annular Mode indices. (a) NAM and (b) SAM. The NAM is defined as the difference in zonal mean SLP at 35°N and 65°N (Li and Wang, 2003) and the SAM as the difference in zonal mean SLP at 40°S and 65°S (Gong and Wang, 1999). All anomalies are relative to averages from 1995–2014. The curves show multi-model ensemble averages over the CMIP6 r1 simulations. The shadings around the SSP1-2.6 and SSP3-7.0 curves denote the 5–95% ranges of the ensembles. The numbers inside each panel are the number of model simulations. The results are for concentration-driven simulations. Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table 4.SM.1).