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Figure 5.23 | CMIP6 Earth system model (ESM) concentration-driven historical simulations for 1850 to 2014, compared to observation-based estimates from the global carbon project (GCP). (a) Cumulative ocean carbon uptake from 1850 (PgC); (b) cumulative land carbon uptake from 1850 (PgC). Only models that simulate both land and ocean carbon fluxes are shown here. Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table 5.SM.6).