Figure 5.31 | Illustration of relationship between cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and global mean surface air temperature (GSAT) increase (left) and conceptual schematic of the assessment of the remaining carbon budget from its constituting components (right). Carbon budgets consistent with various levels of additional warming are provided in Table 5.8 and should not be read from the illustrations in either panel. Left-hand panel: Historical data (thin black line data) shows historical CO2 emissions as reported in Friedlingstein et al. (2020) together with the assessed global mean surface air temperature increase from 1850–1900 as assessed in Chapter 2 (Box 2.3, GSAT). The orange-brown range with its central line shows the estimated human-induced share of historical warming (Haustein et al., 2017). The vertical orange-brown line shows the assessed range of historical human-induced warming for the 2010–2019 period relative to 1850–1900 (Chapter 3). The grey cone shows the assessed range for the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) assessed to falllikely in the 1.0°C–2.3°C per 1000 PgC range Section 126.96.36.199), starting from 2015. Thin coloured lines show CMIP6 simulations for the five scenarios of the AR6 core set (SSP1-1.9, sky blue; SSP1-2.6, dark blue; SSP2-4.5, yellow; SSP3-7.0, red; SSP5-8.5, maroon), starting from 2015. Diagnosed carbon emissions (Arora et al., 2020) are complemented with estimated land-use change emissions for each respective scenario (Gidden et al., 2019). Coloured areas show the Chapter 4 assessed very likely range of GSAT projections and thick coloured central lines the median estimate, for each respective scenario. These projections are expressed relative to the cumulative CO2 emissions that are available for emissions-driven CMIP6 ScenarioMIP experiments for each respective scenario (Riahi et al., 2017; Rogelj et al., 2018a; Gidden et al., 2019). Right-hand panel: schematic illustration of assessment of remaining carbon budget based on multiple lines of evidence. The remaining allowable warming is estimated by combining the global warming limit of interest with the assessed historical human induced warming Section 188.8.131.52.2), the assessed future potential non-CO2 warming contribution Section 184.108.40.206.3) and the zero emissions commitment Section 220.127.116.11.4). Note that contributions in the right-hand panel are illustrative and contributions are not to scale. For example, the central ZEC estimate was assessed to be zero. The remaining allowable warming (vertical blue bar) is subsequently combined with the assessed TCRE (Sections 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124.1) and contribution of unrepresented Earth system feedbacks in models used to estimate ZEC and TCRE Section 126.96.36.199.5) to provide an assessed estimate of the remaining carbon budget (horizontal blue bar; see Table 5.8). Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table 5.SM.6).