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Figure 5.5 | Global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. (a) Historical trends of anthropogenic CO2 emissions (fossil fuels and net land-use change, including land management, called LULUCF flux in the main text) for the period 1870 to 2019, with ‘others’ representing flaring, emissions from carbonates during cement manufacture. Data sources: (Boden et al., 2017; IEA, 2017; Andrew, 2018; BP, 2018; Le Quéré et al., 2018a; Friedlingstein et al., 2020). (b) The net land-use change CO2 flux (PgC yr–1) as estimated by three bookkeeping models and 16 Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) for the global annual carbon budget 2019 (Friedlingstein et al., 2020). The three bookkeeping models are from Hansis et al., 2015; Houghton and Nassikas, 2017; Gasser et al., 2020 and are all updated to 2019. Their average is used to determine the net land-use change flux in the annual global carbon budget (black line). The DGVM estimates are the result of differencing a simulation with and without land-use changes run under observed historical climate and CO2, following the Trendy v9 protocol (; they are used to provide an uncertainty range to the bookkeeping estimates (Friedlingstein et al., 2020). All estimates are unsmoothed annual data. Estimates differ in process comprehensiveness of the models and in definition of flux components included in the net land use change flux. Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table 5.SM.6).