Figure 7.20 | Contributions of effective radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake and radiative feedbacks to global atmospheric energy input and near-surface air temperature change at year 100 of abrupt 4xCO2 simulations of CMIP6 models. (a) The energy flux to the global atmosphere associated with the effective CO2 forcing, global ocean heat uptake, Planck response, and radiative feedbacks, which together sum to zero. The inset shows energy input from individual feedbacks, summing to the total feedback energy input. (b) Contributions to net global warming are calculated by dividing the energy inputs by the magnitude of the global Planck response (3.2 W m–2°C–1), with the contributions from radiative forcing, ocean heat uptake, and radiative feedbacks (orange bars) summing to the value of net warming (grey bar). The inset shows warming contributions associated with individual feedbacks, summing to the total feedback contribution. Uncertainties show the interquartile range (25th and 75th percentiles) across models. Radiative kernel methods (see Section 7.4.1) were used to decompose the net energy input from radiative feedbacks into contributions from changes in atmospheric water vapour, lapse rate, clouds, and surface albedo (Zelinka et al. (2020) using the Huang et al. (2017) radiative kernel). The CMIP6 models included are those analysed by Zelinka et al. (2020) and the warming contribution analysis is based on that of Goosse et al. (2018). Further details on data sources and processing are available in the chapter data table (Table 7.SM.14).