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Figure 1.4 |  Increasingly complex climate-related risks. Risk results from interactions among the determinants of risk—hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, shaped by responses—which can interact in complex ways. Different risks and responses can compound in single a) or multiple b) directions, cascade (e.g., with one event triggering another; c), and aggregate (e.g., with independent determinants of risks co-occurring; d). This complex nature of risk is central in the AR6 assessment. Figure adapted from Simpson et al. (2021).