Figure 12.9 | Observed and projected impacts for sub-regions of CSA. Impacts are distinguished for main sectors and for their corresponding systems (or components). Observed impacts relate to the last several decades. Projected impacts represent a synthesis across several emission and warming scenarios, indicative of a time period from the middle to end of the 21st century. For each system (e.g., coral reefs) climate-change impacts are identified as being low, medium or high. The references underlying this assessment can be found in SM12.4.1.