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Figure 13.2 | Indicators of reported damages to people and assets, vulnerability and adaptive capacity across European countries:

(a) GDP per capita (average 2013–2018), in constant 2011 international dollars (World Bank, 2020);

(b) exposure as measured by the global rank of the Climate Risk index, which is based on economic damages and fatalities due to climate-related extreme weather events between 1999 and 2018 (Germanwatch, 2020);

(c) level of climate-change concern among a representative weighted sample of residents 15 years and older in private households (European Social Survey, 2020); and

(d) vulnerability to disasters and humanitarian crisis in 2021. The index is based on socioeconomic factors (development, inequality and aid dependency) and vulnerable groups (DRMKC, 2020).