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Figure 17.5 |  Several illustrative typologies for how risk has been managed. The first is ‘extensive protection’, in which the bulk of investments is made in reducing exposure, through protection up to limits (e.g., flood levees) and including retreat. The second category is ‘moderate investment focused on adaptive capacity’, in which the bulk of investment is made in reducing vulnerability (e.g., improved housing). The third category is ‘little adaptation investment’, in which there is little investment in either reducing vulnerability or exposure, and the bulk of risk is residual, borne by the population.