Figure caption

Figure 18.3 | Transformative actions and system transitions characterize Climate Resilient Development Pathways

(a) Societal choices that generate fragmented climate action or inaction and unsustainable development perpetuate business as usual and entrenched systems.

(b) Societal choices that support CRD involve transformative adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development actions that drive five systems transitions (energy, land and other ecosystems, urban and infrastructure, industrial and societal). There is close interdependence between these systems. The system transition framework allows for a comprehensive assessment of the synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development. For example, land and water use in one system impacts the other systems and their surrounding ecosystems, thus reflecting how agricultural practices can have an impact on energy usage in urban centers. Finally, societal system transitions within each of the other systems enable the transitions to occur (18.3, Box 18.1).