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Figure 4.31 |  Examples of regional studies where communities experienced negative impacts despite or beyond implemented adaptation have been documented. Panels indicate the climate hazard that leads to the need for adaptation, the adaptation option implemented and the recorded impacts per region (A – Arctic (Landauer and Juhola, 2019), B – Africa (van der Geest et al., 2019), C – Caribbean (Lashley and Warner, 2015), D – South Asia (Kusters and Wangdi, 2013; van der Geest and Schindler, 2016; Bhowmik et al., 2021), E – Southeast Asia (Acosta et al., 2016; Beckman and Nguyen, 2016), F – Pacific the Small Island States (Gawith et al., 2016; Handmer and Nalau, 2019), G – Global effect: Mountain Cryosphere (Huggel et al., 2019)). Presented examples are limited to the available peer-reviewed literature that focuses explicitly on impacts that have been documented despite documented evidence that adaptation in relation to water hazards had previously been implemented. Section 4.3 provides a full assessment of observed impacts across sectors and regions.