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Figure 5.3 |  Synthesis of literature on observed impacts of climate change on productivity by crop type and region. The figure draws on >150 articles categorized by: agriculture total factor productivity including literature estimating all agricultural outputs in a region; major crop species including literature assessing yield changes in the four major crops; crop categories including productivity changes (yield, quality and other perceived changes) in a range of crops with different growth habits. The assessment uses literature published since AR5, although the timespan often extends prior to 2014. The direction of the effect and the confidence are based on the reported impacts and attribution, and on the number of articles. See SM5.1 and SM5.2 for details.