Figure 8.3 | Illustration of the relationship between climate hazards, their impacts (including economic and non-economic losses and damages) and human systems leading to systemic vulnerability. We need to understand who is vulnerable, where, at what scale and why. We cannot just look at the climate hazard (e.g., wild fires, floods, droughts, sea level rise, etc.) but must also look at who is being affected by these hazards and factors that make people and groups vulnerable (e.g., poverty, uneven power structures, disadvantage and discrimination due to, for example, social location and the intersectionality or the overlapping and compounding risks from ethnicity or racial discrimination, gender, age, or disability, etc.) (see also Cross-Chapter Box GENDER in Chapter 18; Section 5.12).