Figure 9.22 | Projected yield changes for major staple crops in Africa due to climate change (compared to 2005 yield levels). Projected impacts are grouped by projected global warming levels. Boxplots show a synthesis of projected staple crop impacts, with and without adaptation measures (e.g., planting date, cultivar, tillage or irrigation). On average crop yields are projected to decrease with increasing global warming across staple crops in Africa. The overall adaptation potential to offset yield losses across Africa for rice, maize and wheat reduces with increasing global warming. On average, in projections including adaptation options, yield losses in the median case are reduced from −33% to −10% of 2005 levels at 2°C of global warming and from −46% to −23% at 4°C. Global warming levels were calculated using a baseline for pre-industrial global mean temperature of 1850–1900. Data are a synthesis across 35 studies for nearly 1040 locations and cases of projected impacts for regions of Africa for maize, rice and wheat (Hasegawa et al., 2021; Table SM9.5).