Figure CCP5.4 | Synthesis of detection and attribution of impacts of anthropogenic climate change on different natural and human systems in mountain regions. For each system and region assessed, the level of confidence for detection and for attribution to anthropogenic climate change is indicated. Also indicated is how strong the contribution of climate change is to the observed changes, considering climatic and non-climatic causal factors. Observed impacts were analysed in terms of negative impacts (e.g., economic or non-economic damages, losses, contribution to increasing risks for society), where the numbers refer to the percentage of references indicating negative impacts for a given impact. The percentage of local community perception indicates the percentage of all literature references for a given system and region that account for local knowledge. The number of references refers to the total number of literature references considered for an impact on a specific system and region. ‘Not assessed’ refers to limited evidence in the literature (SMCCP5.2 and Table SMCCP5.5–5.14).