Frequently Asked Questions

FAQ 1.1 What is climate change mitigation?Download
FAQ 1.2 Which Greenhouse Gasses (GHGs) are relevant to which sectors?Download
FAQ 1.3 What is the difference between “net zero emissions” and “carbon neutrality”?Download

FAQ 2.1 Are emissions still increasing or are they falling?Download
FAQ 2.2 Are there countries that have reduced emissions and grown economically at the same time?Download
FAQ 2.3 How much time do we have to act to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees?Download

FAQ 3.1 Is it possible to stabilize warming without net negative CO2 and GHG emissions?Download
FAQ 3.2 How can net zero emissions be achieved and what are the implications of net zero emissions for the climate?Download
FAQ 3.3 How plausible are high emissions scenarios, and how do they inform policy?Download

FAQ 4.1 What is to be done over and above countries existing pledges under the Paris Agreement to keep global warming well below 2C?Download
FAQ 4.2 Option 1: What is to be done in the near-term to accelerate mitigation and shift development pathways?Download
FAQ 4.3 Is it possible to accelerate mitigation in the near-term while there are so many other development priorities? (education, health, employment, etc.)Download

FAQ 5.1 What can every person do to limit warming to 1.5°C?Download
FAQ 5.2 How does society perceive transformative change?Download
FAQ 5.3 Is demand reduction compatible with growth of human well-being?Download

FAQ 6.1 Will energy systems that emit little or no CO2 be different than those of today?Download
FAQ 6.2 Can renewable sources provide all the energy needed for energy systems that emit little 20 or no CO2?Download
FAQ 6.3 What are the most important steps to decarbonize the energy system?Download

FAQ 7.1 Why is the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU) sector unique when considering GHG mitigation?Download
FAQ 7.2 What AFOLU measures have the greatest economic mitigation potential?Download
FAQ 7.3 7.3 What are potential impacts of large-scale establishment of dedicated bioenergy plantations and crops and why is it so controversial?Download

FAQ 8.1 Why are urban areas important to global climate change mitigation?Download
FAQ 8.2 What are the most impactful options cities can take to mitigate urban emissions, and how can these be best implemented?Download
FAQ 8.3 How do we estimate global emissions from cities, and how reliable are the estimates?Download

FAQ 9.1 To which GHG emissions do buildings contribute?Download
FAQ 9.2 What are the co-benefits and trade-offs of mitigation actions in buildings?Download
FAQ 9.3 Which are the most effective policies and measures to decarbonize the building sector?Download

FAQ 10.1 How important is electro-mobility in decarbonising transport and are there major constraints in battery minerals?Download
FAQ 10.2 How hard is it to decarbonise heavy vehicles in transport like long haul trucks, ships and planes?Download
FAQ 10.3 How can governments, communities and individuals reduce demand and be more efficient in consuming transport energy?Download

FAQ 11.1 What are the key options to reduce industrial emissions?Download
FAQ 11.2 How costly is industrial decarbonisation and will there be synergies or conflicts with sustainable development?Download
FAQ 11.3 What needs to happen for a low carbon industry transition?Download

FAQ 12.1 How could new technologies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere contribute to climate change mitigation?Download
FAQ 12.2 Why is it important to assess mitigation measures from a systemic perspective, rather than only looking at their potential to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions?Download
FAQ 12.3 Why do we need a food systems approach for assessing GHG emissions and mitigation opportunities from food systems?Download

FAQ 13.1 What roles do national play in climate mitigation, and how can they be effective?Download
FAQ 13.2 What policies and strategies can be applied to combat climate change?Download
FAQ 13.3 How can actions at the sub-national level contribute to climate mitigation?Download

FAQ 14.1 Is international cooperation working?Download
FAQ 14.2 What is the future role of international cooperation in the context of the Paris Agreement?Download
FAQ 14.3 Are there any important gaps in international cooperation, which will need to be filled in order for countries to achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement, such as holding temperature increase to ‘well below 2°C’ and pursuing efforts towards ‘1.5°C’ above pre- 35 industrial levels?Download

FAQ 15.1 What’s the role of climate finance and the finance sector for a transformation towards a sustainable future?Download
FAQ 15.2 What’s the current status of global climate finance and the alignment of global financial flows with the Paris Agreement?Download
FAQ 15.3 What defines a financing gap, and where are the critically identified gaps?Download

FAQ 16.1 Will innovation and technological changes be enough to meet the Paris Agreement objectives?Download
FAQ 16.2 What can be done to promote innovation for climate change and the widespread diffusion of low-emission and climate-resilient technology?Download
FAQ 16.3 What is the role of international technology cooperation in addressing climate change?Download

FAQ 17.1 Will decarbonisation efforts slow or accelerate sustainable development transitions?Download
FAQ 17.2 What role do considerations of justice and inclusivity play in the transition towards sustainable development?Download
FAQ 17.3 How critical are the roles of institutions in accelerating the transition and what can governance enable?Download

Compiled file of all FAQs