Figure caption

Figure 11.2 | Average annual growth rates of industrial sector GHG emissions and drivers (1900–2019). Before 1970, GHG emission (other) is limited to that from cement production. Waste emission is excluded. Primary material extraction excludes fuels and biomass. Presented factors correspond directly to Equation 11.1. Sources: population before 1950 and GDP before 1960: Maddison Project (2018); population from 1950 to 1970: UN (2015); population and GDP for 1960–2020: World Bank (2021); data on material stock, extraction, and use of secondary materials: Wiedenhofer et al. (2019); data on material extraction: UNEP and IRP (2020); industrial energy use for 1900–1970: IIASA (2018), for 1971–2019: IEA (2021b); data on industrial GHG emissions for 1900–1970: CDIAC (2017), for 1970–2019: data from Crippa et al. (2021) and Minx et al. (2021).