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Figure 11.6 | Growth in global demand for selected key materials and global population, 1990–2019. Notes: based on global values, shown indexed to 1990 levels (=100). Steel refers to crude steel production. Aluminium refers to primary aluminium production. Plastic refers to the production of a subset of key thermoplastic resins. Cement and concrete follow similar demand patterns. Sources: 1990–2018: IEA (2020b). 2019–2020: GCCA (2021a); International Aluminium Institute (2021a); Statista (2021b); U.S. Geological Survey (2021); World Bank (2021); World Steel Association (2021).