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Figure 12.7 | Regional differences in health outcomes, territorial per capita GHG emissions from national food systems, and share of food system GHG emissions from energy use. GHG emissions are calculated according to the IPCC Tier 1 approach and are assigned to the country where they occur, not necessarily where the food is consumed. Health outcome is expressed as relative contribution of each of the following risk factors to their combined risk for deaths: child and maternal malnutrition (red), dietary risks (yellow) or high body mass index (blue). Sources: wholesale cost of food per capita: Springmann et al. 2021); territorial food system GHG emissions: EDGAR v.6, Crippa et al. (2021a), recalculated according to Crippa et al. (2021b) using AR6 GWPs; deaths attributed to dietary factors: IHME (2018); GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators et al. (2019).