Figure caption

Figure 16.1 | Technology innovation process and the (illustrative) and role of different public policy instruments (on the right-hand side). Source: adapted from IEA (2020a). Note that, as shown in Section 16.4.4, demand-pull instruments in the regulatory instrument category, for instance, can also shape the early stages of the innovation process. Their position on the latter stages is highlighted in this figure because typically these instruments have been introduced in latter stages of the development of the technology.